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1 We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
2 perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
3 Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the
4 general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to
5 ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
6 Constitution for the United States of America.
8 Article I.
10 Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be
11 vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall
12 consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
14 Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
15 Members chosen every second Year by the People of the
16 several States, and the Electors in each State shall have
17 the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most
18 numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
20 No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have
21 attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven
22 Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not,
23 when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he
24 shall be chosen.
26 [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among
27 the several States which may be included within this Union,
28 according to their respective Numbers, which shall be
29 determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons,
30 including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and
31 excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
32 Persons.] The actual Enumeration shall be made within three
33 Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United
34 States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in
35 such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of
36 Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
37 Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one
38 Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made,
39 the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three,
40 Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations
41 one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four,
42 Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia
43 ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia
44 three.
46 When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State,
47 the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of
48 Election to fill such Vacancies.
50 The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and
51 other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of
52 Impeachment.
54 Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
55 of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature
56 thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one
57 Vote.
59 Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of
60 the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may
61 be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the
62 first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second
63 Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth
64 Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth
65 Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second Year; and
66 if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the
67 Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
68 thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next
69 Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such
70 Vacancies.
72 No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
73 the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of
74 the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
75 Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
77 The Vice President of the United States shall be President
78 of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be
79 equally divided.
81 The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a
82 President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President,
83 or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the
84 United States.
86 The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all
87 Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be
88 on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United
89 States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no
90 Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two
91 thirds of the Members present.
93 Judgement in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further
94 than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold
95 and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the
96 United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be
97 liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and
98 Punishment, according to Law.
100 Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
101 for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in
102 each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may
103 at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as
104 to the Place of Chusing Senators.
106 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and
107 such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,
108 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
110 Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
111 Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a
112 Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business;
113 but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
114 authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in
115 such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may
116 provide.
118 Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings,
119 punish it Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the
120 Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
122 Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from
123 time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may
124 in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of
125 the Members of either House on any question shall, at the
126 Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the
127 Journal.
129 Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall,
130 without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than
131 three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the
132 two Houses shall be sitting.
134 Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
135 Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law,
136 and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They
137 shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the
138 Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at
139 the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and
140 returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in
141 either House, they shall not be Questioned in any other
142 Place.
144 No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for
145 which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under
146 the Authority of the United States, which shall have been
147 created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased
148 during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the
149 United States, shall be a Member of either House during his
150 Continuance in Office.
152 Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in
153 the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or
154 concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
156 Every Bill which shall have passed the House of
157 Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a
158 Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If
159 he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it,
160 with his Objections to that House in which it shall have
161 originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their
162 Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such
163 Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass
164 the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to
165 the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered,
166 and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become
167 a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall
168 be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons
169 voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the
170 Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be
171 returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted)
172 after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be
173 a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the
174 Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which
175 Case it shall not be a Law.
177 Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of
178 the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary
179 (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to
180 the President of the United States; and before the Same
181 shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being
182 disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the
183 Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules
184 and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
186 Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
187 Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debt and
188 provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the
189 United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be
190 uniform throughout the United States;
192 To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
194 To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the
195 several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
197 To establish an uniform rule of Naturalization, and uniform
198 Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United
199 States;
201 To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign
202 Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
204 To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the
205 Securities and current Coin of the United States;
207 To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
209 To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by
210 securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the
211 exclusive Right to their respective Writings and
212 Discoveries;
214 To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
216 To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the
217 high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
219 To declare War, grand Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and to
220 make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
222 To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money
223 to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
225 To provide and maintain a Navy;
227 To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land
228 and naval Forces;
230 To provide for calling for the Militia to execute the
231 Laws of the Union; suppress Insurrections and repel
232 Invasions;
234 To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the
235 Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be
236 employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to
237 the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers,
238 and the Authority of training the Militia according to the
239 discipline prescribed by Congress;
241 To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever,
242 over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may,
243 by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of
244 Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United
245 States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places
246 purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
247 which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts,
248 Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful
249 Building;--And
251 To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for
252 carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other
253 Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the
254 United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
256 Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as
257 any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit,
258 shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year
259 one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may
260 be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars
261 for each Person.
263 The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
264 suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the
265 public Safety may require it.
267 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
269 No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in
270 Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before
271 directed to be taken.
273 No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any
274 State.
276 No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce
277 or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another:
278 nor shall Vessels bound to, or from one State, be obliged to
279 enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
281 No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in
282 Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular
283 Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of
284 all public Money shall be published from time to time.
286 No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:
287 And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under
288 them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of
289 any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
290 whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
292 Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance,
293 or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin
294 Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and
295 silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of
296 Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the
297 Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
299 No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any
300 Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be
301 absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws:
302 and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any
303 State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the
304 Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be
305 subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
307 No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any
308 duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of
309 Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another
310 State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless
311 actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not
312 admit of delay.
314 Article II.
316 Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a
317 President of the United States of America. He shall hold his
318 Office during the term of four Years, and, together with the
319 Vice-President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as
320 follows.
322 Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
323 thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole
324 Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State
325 may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or
326 Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or
327 Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an
328 Elector.
330 [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote
331 by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be
332 an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they
333 shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the
334 Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and
335 certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government
336 of the United States, directed to the President of the
337 Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence
338 of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
339 Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The
340 Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the
341 President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number
342 of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
343 have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then
344 the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by
345 Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a
346 Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said
347 House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in
348 chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States,
349 the representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum
350 for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from
351 two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States
352 shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the
353 Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest
354 Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.
355 But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes,
356 the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the
357 Vice-President.]
359 The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors,
360 and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day
361 shall be the same throughout the United States.
363 No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the
364 United States, at the time of Adoption of this Constitution,
365 shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall
366 any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have
367 attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen
368 Years a Resident within the United States.
370 In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of
371 his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers
372 and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the
373 Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the
374 Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of
375 the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer
376 shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act
377 accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President
378 shall be elected.
380 The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his
381 Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased
382 nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have
383 been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period
384 any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
386 Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall
387 take the following Oath or Affirmation:--``I do solemnly
388 swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office
389 of President of the United States, and will to the best of
390 my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of
391 the United States.''
393 Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the
394 Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of
395 the several States, when called into the actual Service of
396 the United States; he may require the Opinion in writing, of
397 the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments,
398 upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective
399 Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprives and
400 Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in
401 Cases of Impeachment.
403 He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of
404 the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the
405 Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and
406 with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint
407 Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of
408 the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United
409 States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided
410 for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress
411 may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers,
412 as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts
413 of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
415 The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that
416 may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting
417 Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next
418 Session.
420 Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress
421 Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to
422 their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge
423 necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions,
424 convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of
425 Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of
426 Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall
427 think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public
428 Ministers he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully
429 executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the
430 United States.
432 Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil
433 Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office
434 on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or
435 other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
437 Article III.
439 Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be
440 vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as
441 the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.
442 The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall
443 hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at
444 stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation
445 which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in
446 Office.
448 Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in
449 Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of
450 the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made
451 under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors,
452 other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of
453 admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to
454 which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies
455 between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of
456 another State;--between Citizens of different
457 States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands
458 under Grants of different States, and between a State, or
459 the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or
460 Subjects.
462 In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers
463 and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the
464 supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the
465 other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have
466 appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such
467 Exceptions, and Under such Regulations as the Congress shall
468 make.
470 The trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment,
471 shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State
472 where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when
473 not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such
474 Place and Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
476 Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist
477 only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their
478 Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be
479 convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two
480 Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in Open
481 Court.
483 The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of
484 Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption
485 of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person
486 attained.
488 Article IV.
490 Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each
491 State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings
492 of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws
493 prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, records and
494 Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
496 Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to
497 all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several
498 States.
500 A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other
501 Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another
502 State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the
503 State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to
504 the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
506 No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the
507 Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence
508 of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such
509 Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the
510 Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
512 Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into
513 this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected
514 within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be
515 formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of
516 States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the
517 States concerned as well as of the Congress.
519 The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all
520 needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or
521 other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing
522 in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice
523 any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
525 Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State
526 in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall
527 protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of
528 the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature
529 cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
531 Article V.
533 The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem
534 it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution,
535 or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of
536 the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing
537 Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all
538 Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when
539 ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several
540 States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the
541 one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the
542 Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior
543 to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in
544 any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth
545 Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its
546 Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the
547 Senate.
549 Article VI.
551 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before
552 the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against
553 the United States under this Constitution, as under the
554 Confederation.
556 This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which
557 shall be made in Persuance thereof; and all Treaties made,
558 or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United
559 States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges
560 in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the
561 Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary
562 notwithstanding.
564 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
565 Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive
566 and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the
567 several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to
568 support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever
569 be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust
570 under the United States.
572 Article VII.
574 The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be
575 sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution
576 between the States so ratifying the Same.
578 Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States
579 present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our
580 Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the
581 Independence of the United States of America the Twelth. In
582 witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.
585  Presidt and deputy from Virginia
588  New Hampshire. Delaware.
590 John Langdan Geo: Read
591 Nicholas Gilman John Dickinson
592  Jaco: Broom
593  Gunning Bedford jun
594  Massachusetts. Richard Bassett
596 Nathaniel Gorham
597 Rufus King Maryland.
599  James McHenry
600  Connecticut. Danl Carroll
601  Dan: of St Thos Jenifer
602 Wm Saml Johnson
603 Roger Sherman
604  Virginia.
606  New York. John Blair--
607  James Madison Jr.
608 Alexander Hamilton
610  North Carolina.
611  New Jersey.
612  Wm Blount
613 Wil: Livingston Hu Williamson
614 David Brearley. Richd Dobbs Spaight.
615 Wm Patterson
616 Jona: Dayton
617  South Carolina.
619  Pennsylvania. J. Rutledge
620  Charles Pinckney
621 B. Franklin Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
622 Robt. Morris Pierce Butler
623 Thos. Fitzsimons
624 James Wilson
625 Thomas Mifflin Georgia.
626 Geo. Clymer
627 Jared Ingersoll William Few
628 Gouv Morris Abr Baldwin
629  Attest:
630  WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
632 Articles in Addition To, and Amendment Of, the Constitution
633 of the United States of America, Proposed by Congress, and
634 Ratified by the Legislatures of the Several States, Pursuant
635 to the Fifth Article of the Original Constitution.
637 Article I.
639 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
640 religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
641 abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the
642 right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition
643 the Government for a redress of grievances.
645 Article II.
647 A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of
648 a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,
649 shall not be infringed.
651 Article III.
653 No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
654 house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war,
655 but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
657 Article IV.
659 The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
660 houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches
661 and seizures, shall not be violated and no Warrants shall
662 issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or
663 affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
664 searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
666 Article V.
668 No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or
669 otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or
670 indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the
671 land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual
672 service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
673 person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in
674 jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any
675 criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
676 deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process
677 of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
678 without just compensation.
680 Article VI.
682 In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the
683 right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of
684 the State and district wherein the crime shall have been
685 committed, which district shall have been previously
686 ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
687 cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
688 against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining
689 witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of
690 Counsel for his defense.
692 Article VII.
694 In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall
695 exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
696 preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
697 reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according
698 to the rules of the common law.
700 Article VIII.
702 Excessive bail shall not be required, or excessive fines
703 imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
705 Article IX.
707 The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights,
708 shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained
709 by the people.
711 Article X.
713 The powers not delegated to the United States by the
714 Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are
715 reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
717 Article XI.
719 The Judicial power of the United States shall not be
720 construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced
721 or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens
722 of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign
723 State.
725 Article XII.
727 The Electors shall meet in their respective sates and vote
728 by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at
729 least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with
730 themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person
731 voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person
732 voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct
733 lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all
734 persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of
735 votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and
736 transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United
737 States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The
738 President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and
739 House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the
740 votes shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest
741 number of votes for President, shall be the President, if
742 such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
743 appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from
744 the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three
745 on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
746 Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the
747 President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be
748 taken by states, the representation from each state having
749 one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a
750 member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a
751 majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
752 And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a
753 President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon
754 them, before the fourth day of March next following, then
755 the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of
756 the death or other constitutional disability of the
757 President.--The person having the greatest number of votes
758 as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such
759 number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
760 appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the
761 two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the
762 Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of
763 two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority
764 of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no
765 person constitutionally ineligible to the office of
766 President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the
767 United States.
769 Article XIII.
771 Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except
772 as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been
773 duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any
774 place subject to their jurisdiction.
776 Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article
777 by appropriate legislation.
779 Article XIV.
781 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United
782 States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens
783 of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
784 No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge
785 the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
786 States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life,
787 liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny
788 to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection
789 of the laws.
791 Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the
792 several States according to their respective numbers,
793 counting the whole number of persons in each State,
794 excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at
795 any election for the choice of electors for President and
796 Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in
797 Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or
798 the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of
799 the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years
800 of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any
801 abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other
802 crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced
803 in the proportion which the number of such male citizens
804 shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one
805 years of age in such State.
807 Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in
808 Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or
809 hold any office, civil or military, under the United States,
810 or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as
811 a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States,
812 or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive
813 or judicial officer of any State, to support the
814 Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in
815 insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or
816 comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote
817 of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
819 Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United
820 States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for
821 payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing
822 insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But
823 neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay
824 any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
825 rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the
826 loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts,
827 obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
829 Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
830 appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
832 Article XV.
834 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
835 vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
836 by any State on account of race, color, or previous
837 condition of servitude--
839 Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
840 article by appropriate legislation.
842 Article XVI.
844 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
845 incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment
846 among the several States, and without regard to any census
847 or enumeration.
849 Article XVII.
851 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
852 Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for
853 six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The
854 electors in each State shall have the qualifications
855 requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
856 State legislatures.
858 When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in
859 the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall
860 issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided,
861 That the legislature of any State may empower the executive
862 thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill
863 the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
865 This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the
866 election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes
867 valid as part of the Constitution.
869 Article XVIII.
871 Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this
872 article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of
873 intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into,
874 or the exportation thereof from the United States and all
875 territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
876 purposes is hereby prohibited.
878 Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have
879 concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate
880 legislation.
882 Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
883 have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
884 the legislature of the several States, as provided in the
885 Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
886 submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
888 Article XIX.
890 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
891 be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State
892 on account of sex.
894 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
895 appropriate legislation.
897 Article XX.
899 Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President
900 shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms
901 of Senators and representatives at noon on the 3d day of
902 January, of the years in which such terms would have ended
903 if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of
904 their successors shall then begin.
906 Section 2. The congress shall assemble at least once in
907 every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d
908 day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different
909 day.
911 Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the
912 term of the President, the President elect shall have died,
913 the Vice President elect shall become President. If a
914 President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed
915 for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect
916 shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect
917 shall act as President until a President shall have
918 qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case
919 wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect
920 shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as
921 President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be
922 selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a
923 President or Vice President shall have qualified.
925 Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of
926 the death of any of the persons from whom the House of
927 Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of
928 choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of
929 the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may
930 choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall
931 have devolved upon them.
933 Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th
934 day of October following the ratification of this article.
936 Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
937 have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
938 the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States
939 within seven years from the date of its submission.
941 Article XXI.
943 Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the
944 Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
946 Section 2 The transportation or importation into any State,
947 Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery
948 or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the
949 laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
951 Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
952 have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
953 conventions in the several States, as provided in the
954 Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
955 submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
957 Article XXII.
959 Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the
960 President more than twice, and no person who has held the
961 office of President, or acted as President, for more than
962 two years of a term to which some other person was elected
963 President shall be elected to the office of the President
964 more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any
965 person holding the office of President when this Article was
966 proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person
967 who may be holding the office of President, or acting as
968 President, during the term within which this Article become
969 operative from holding the office of President or acting as
970 President during the remainder of such term.
972 Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
973 have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
974 the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States
975 within seven years from the date of its submission to the
976 States by the Congress.
978 Article XXIII.
980 Section I. The District constituting the seat of Government
981 of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the
982 Congress may direct:
984 A number of electors of President and Vice President equal
985 to the whole number of Senators and Representative in
986 Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were
987 a State, but in no event more than the least populous
988 State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the
989 States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of
990 the election of President and Vice President, to be electors
991 appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District
992 and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article
993 of amendment.
995 Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
996 article by appropriate legislation.
998 Article XXIV.
1000 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
1001 vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice
1002 President, for electors for President or Vice President, or
1003 for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be
1004 denied or abridged by the United States or any State by
1005 reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
1007 Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
1008 article by appropriate legislation.
1010 Article XXV.
1012 Section 1. In the case of the removal of the President from
1013 office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President
1014 shall become President.
1016 Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
1017 Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice
1018 President who shall take office upon confirmation by a
1019 majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
1021 Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President
1022 pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
1023 Representative his written declaration that he is unable to
1024 discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he
1025 transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary,
1026 such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice
1027 President as Acting President.
1029 Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of
1030 either the principal officers of the executive departments
1031 or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,
1032 transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
1033 Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
1034 declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
1035 power and duties of his office, the Vice President shall
1036 immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as
1037 Acting President.
1039 Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President
1040 pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
1041 Representatives his written declaration that no inability
1042 exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office
1043 unless the Vice President and a majority of either the
1044 principal officers of the executive department or of such
1045 other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within
1046 four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
1047 Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
1048 declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
1049 powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall
1050 decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for
1051 that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within
1052 twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written
1053 declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within
1054 twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble,
1055 determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the
1056 President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of
1057 his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge
1058 the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall
1059 resume the powers and duties of his office.
1061 Article XXVI.
1063 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who
1064 are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be
1065 denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
1066 account of age.
1068 Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
1069 article by appropriate legislation.
1071 Article XXVII.
1073 No law, varying the compensation for the services of the
1074 Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an
1075 election of representatives shall have intervened.